Postcard

Only where there was a drawing with an oil pencil or ink, then a full copy of this drawing appeared on the print. The process can be repeated many times. In addition to black and white (more precisely: one-color, the paint could be of any color) image,
made and colored. For this, portions of the image corresponding to different colors were painted on different stones, so that the drawings then coincided when printing. Then, parts of the future image were printed separately from each stone with the desired color. As a result, a color image was obtained on a postcard.

The printing technology with several stones was called chromolithography and was very widely used for the manufacture of high-quality color cards in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The development of photography and the ability to produce photo-negatives of the desired images have led to the fact that this method has been actively used to create printed lithographic forms with images close to photorealistic. One of these methods was phototype. The printing plate was a glass plate or metal foil, onto which a special photosensitive solution was applied, consisting of gelatin, as well as potassium or ammonium dichromate. The surface of the stone with acid composition. The etched area was wetted with water and repelled lithographic ink, and ink was easily adhered to the places where the oil painting was applied. The lithographic stone was fixed in the lithographic machine. The stone was well wetted with water, then a printing ink based on drying oil was applied to the moistened stone with a roller, applied only to the non-etched parts of the stone, exactly matching the picture. Thus, the inked printing plate came out. Next, using a lithographic machine, a paper sheet after drying this

A postcard is a well-known printing product. It is unlikely that there will be at least one reader a person who does not have postcards at home. The card is interesting in that it is one of the main printing products on which it was customary to experiment in the field. From the very moment of her appearance in the world, she tried to invest all the printing achievements available at that time. This small piece of cardboard was necessary to convey wishes, create mood, express certain emotions. Therefore, the simplest printing techniques, as a rule, were not enough. They tried to add everything possible to cards. Moreover, they were printed using the most modern printing methods at that time. The first postal card was issued in the Austrocortex. On October 1, 1869, a “correspondent card” appeared in the postal address of this country with a stamp printed with a dignity of two cruisers.
During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871 In the warring armies of France and Germany, the idea was born of providing the card with illustrations. Some of the soldiers began to send postcards to their relatives in drawings (they did not disappear on the other side of the sheet). This idea was quickly picked up by commercial publishers and began to print postcards with various images.

According to the French version, the first illustrated postcard (postcard) was issued by booksellers Leon Benardo from Brittany, and according to the German version booksellers and the owner of a large printing house August Schwartz from Oldenburg. In those days, various methods were used to print postcards, which were just starting to produce printing houses. The main way to print leaflets at that time was lithography. This method was already well developed and gave good results, however, it was time-consuming and expensive. The initial image was applied to the polished stone plate (a special grade of limestone) using an oil lithographic pencil or a special lithographic carcass based on oil.

Printed from an etched metal cliche.

In fact, the technique for making this card is letterpress, and the first "graphic" German card was Augusto Schwartz, printed from a lithographic stone. The technique for making this card is lithography (direct offset). Thus, the paint transferred to a sheet of paper.
And the paint appeared in layers on a sheet and copied a grayscale negative. As a result, different sections of the layer were fixed to varying degrees. After that, the plate was washed with water to rinse off the non-fixed salt, and dried.
As a result of the process of phototyping, in some parts of the layer where the influence of light was insignificant, subtle folds with almost imperceptible depressions between them formed. In the printing process, ink filled these small depressions, resulting in a slight ink layer being transferred to the paper. In areas exposed to stronger light, the size of the folds came out larger, as well as the depth between them. Accordingly, the thickness of the layer of ink transferred to the paper increased. In dark places of the image, printing ink covered the entire surface of the layer. Using phototype, it was possible to create printing products of very high quality. Such an imprint was capable of.